Why Health Care Should be Part of Your Retirement Savings Plan, Too
You might think that retirement planning should be all about the fun and rewarding stuff you are saving up for: remodeling your home, traveling, spoiling your grandkids, and enjoying life. But only thinking about the good parts of your retirement leaves a major piece of your future unfunded: health care.
The fact of the matter is that health care could be your largest retirement expense — by a lot. Each year, Fidelity calculates the average cost of medical expenses for a 65-year-old couple retiring during that calendar year. In 2018, Fidelity has calculated that the average couple will need $280,000 in today’s dollars to cover medical expenses in retirement — and that figure does not include long-term care.
As heartburn-inducing as that number is, it’s not time to panic. Even people earning average incomes can prepare for health care costs in retirement without robbing a bank, moving in with their children, or learning to practice medicine on oneself. Here’s what you need to know about medical care in retirement, and how to prepare yourself and your budget for it.
Your health in retirement
Let’s start with the bad news: It’s likely that your health will deteriorate in retirement.
In some ways, it’s harder to think about declining health than it is to think about mortality, since we know the latter is inevitable. The statistics on preparing for death vs. preparing for poor health in retirement bear this out, since 42 percent of Americans have a will or estate plan in place, according to a Care.com survey, while the Economic Policy Institute found that only 30 percent of Americans have more than $1,000 saved for retirement.
But declining health as you age is a fact of life. According to the CDC, three out of every four Americans over the age of 65 have multiple chronic conditions. These are defined as illnesses or medical conditions that last a year or longer and require ongoing medical attention or limit daily activities.
In addition, the Alzheimer’s Association reports that one out of every three seniors dies with Alzheimer’s or another form of dementia. What is so pernicious about these medical issues is the fact that dealing with chronic health conditions or dementia can be devastating to a retirement budget.
What about Medicare?
What is most concerning about the Fidelity calculation of $280,000 for medical care costs in retirement is the fact that the numbers are based on a 65-year-old retiring couple, which means they are eligible for Medicare. In fact, Medicare premiums make up 35 percent of Fidelity’s calculation, or $98,000. (The remaining breakdown is 45 percent to co-payments, coinsurance, and deductibles, and 20 percent to prescription drugs.)
Medicare costs more than you realize, and covers less than you’d expect. It’s important to understand what Medicare does and does not cover.
Medicare Part A
Medicare Part A, which is also known as hospital insurance, charges no monthly premium for the majority of enrollees. However, Part A coverage is quite sparse. It is called hospital insurance for a reason — because it only (partially) covers inpatient hospital care, inpatient care in a skilled nursing facility, home health care, and hospice care. In short, Medicare Part A will only pay for a serious medical problem that either lands you in the hospital or is expected to be fatal. It does not cover doctor’s visits or prescriptions.
In addition, Part A only partially covers this care. You will still have to meet a deductible of $1,340 (for 2018) for each benefit period, and you will be responsible for a coinsurance amount of $335 per day if you stay more than 60 days in a hospital and $167.50 per day if you stay more than 20 days in a skilled nursing facility.
Medicare Part B
This is the part of Medicare that works like regular health insurance. The majority of beneficiaries will pay a monthly premium (which can be deducted from their monthly Social Security check) for this program. As of 2018, the monthly premium for most Medicare Part B beneficiaries is $134, although higher income beneficiaries may have to pay more.
On Part B, you will pay all costs for covered services up to the yearly $183 deductible. Once that has been met, you will generally pay 20 percent of the Medicare-approved amount for most doctor services, outpatient therapy, and durable medical equipment. However, Medicare Part B does not cover long-term care (nonmedical help that the elderly may need for daily living), prescription drugs, routine dental or eye care, dentures, hearing aids or exams for fitting them, or routine foot care.
These coverage gaps can help explain the astronomical amount of money Fidelity calculates for health care needs in retirement.